Consider the graph of Gibbs free energy G vs Extent of reaction. The number of statement/s from the following which are true with respect to points (a), (b) and (c) is……………..

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A. Reaction is spontaneous at (a) and (b)
B. Reaction is at equilibrium at point (b) and nonspontaneous at point (c)
C. Reaction is spontaneous at (a) and nonspontaneous at (c)
D. Reaction is non-spontaneous at (a) and (b)

Answer : Option B
Solution:
To determine whether a reaction is spontaneous, non-spontaneous, or at equilibrium based on a Gibbs free energy (ΔG) vs. extent of reaction graph, you can use the following criteria:

  1. Spontaneous Reaction:
    • If ΔG is negative throughout the entire extent of reaction, it means the reaction is spontaneous.
    • In the graph, the curve for ΔG should be consistently below the X-axis (ΔG < 0) from the start of the reaction to the end.
  2. Non-Spontaneous Reaction:
    • If ΔG is positive throughout the entire extent of reaction, it means the reaction is non-spontaneous.
    • In the graph, the curve for ΔG should be consistently above the X-axis (ΔG > 0) from the start of the reaction to the end.
  3. Reaction at Equilibrium:
    • If ΔG is approximately zero at a specific point along the extent of reaction, it means the reaction is at equilibrium.
    • In the graph, the curve for ΔG will cross the X-axis (ΔG ≈ 0) at the point where equilibrium is reached.

Here’s a summary:

  • If ΔG < 0 (negative) throughout, the reaction is spontaneous.
  • If ΔG > 0 (positive) throughout, the reaction is non-spontaneous.
  • If ΔG ≈ 0 at a point, the reaction is at equilibrium at that point.
Consider the graph of Gibbs free energy G vs Extent of reaction. The number of statement/s from the following which are true with respect to points (a), (b) and (c) is

Hence option B is your correct answer.

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