Group-13 elements react with O2 in amorphous form to form oxides of type M2O3 (M = element). Which among the following is the most basic oxide?
(1) Al2O3
(2) Tl2O3
(3) Ga2O3
(4) B2O3

Answer: Option 2
Explanation:
Elements with higher electropositivity have a greater tendency to donate electrons and exhibit basic properties.

In group-13 elements and their oxides, we can consider the electropositivity of the elements to explain the basicity of their corresponding oxides:

  1. Thallium (Tl): Thallium is the most electropositive element among the group-13 elements. It has a strong tendency to lose electrons and form a positive ion. Due to its high electropositivity, thallium oxide (Tl2O3) is the most basic among the given options.
  2. Aluminum (Al): Aluminum is moderately electropositive, but not as electropositive as thallium. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) exhibits amphoteric properties, meaning it can act as both an acid and a base. However, it tends to be more acidic than basic.
  3. Gallium (Ga): Gallium is less electropositive than thallium and aluminum. Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) also exhibits amphoteric properties, but it is less basic compared to thallium oxide.
  4. Boron (B): Boron is the least electropositive element among the group-13 elements. Boron oxide (B2O3) tends to be acidic and does not exhibit basic properties.

Therefore, on the basis of electropositivity, we can conclude that thallium oxide (Tl2O3) is the most basic oxide among the given group-13 elements.
Order of basicity for the given group-13 oxides is: Tl2O3 > Ga2O3 > Al2O3 > B2O3

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