The paramagnetic species among the following is ;
                    Na+ Zn2+ Cu + Fe3+

(a) Na+   (b) Zn2+ (c) Cu+ (d) Fe3+

Answer: Option D
Explanation:
Paramagnetic species are those that have unpaired electrons and are attracted to a magnetic field. Among the given options, the paramagnetic species is the one that has unpaired electrons.
a) Na+ (Sodium ion) has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶, and it does not have any unpaired electrons.
b) Zn2+ (Zinc ion) has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶ 3d¹⁰, and it also does not have any unpaired electrons.
c) Cu+ (Copper ion) has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶ 3d¹⁰, and it does not have any unpaired electrons.
d)Fe3+ (Iron ion) has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶ 3d⁵, and it has two unpaired electrons in its 3d subshell.

In summary, Fe3+ is the only species with unpaired electrons (2 unpaired electrons in the 3d subshell), making it the paramagnetic species.

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