In a solid lattice, the cation has left a lattice site and is located in an interstitial position.
The lattice defect is known as
(1) Interstitial defect

(2) Vacancy defect
(3) Frenkel defect

(4) Schottky defect

Answer: Option 3

Explanation:

(1) Interstitial defect: An interstitial defect occurs when an atom or ion occupies an interstitial site, which is an empty space within the crystal lattice. This defect does not involve the displacement of atoms from their regular lattice sites. Instead, additional atoms are inserted into the interstitial positions, resulting in a distortion of the lattice structure.

(2) Vacancy defect: A vacancy defect, also known as a Schottky defect, arises when there are missing atoms or ions from their regular lattice positions. This defect creates empty spaces or vacancies within the crystal lattice. The number of vacancies is equal for cations and anions, maintaining charge neutrality.

(3) Frenkel defect: A Frenkel defect occurs when an ion or atom leaves its regular lattice site and moves to an interstitial site within the crystal lattice. In this defect, the cation is displaced to an interstitial position, while the anion remains in its original lattice site. Frenkel defects are common in compounds with large cations and smaller anions.

(4) Schottky defect: The Schottky defect, also mentioned as a vacancy defect, involves the creation of vacant lattice sites by the absence of atoms or ions from their normal positions. This defect is characterized by the equal number of missing cations and anions to maintain charge balance. Schottky defects are commonly observed in ionic compounds.

In summary, the correct answer to the given question is (3) Frenkel defect, which describes the displacement of a cation to an interstitial site within the lattice structure.

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